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The Colchis Black Sea Littoral in the Archaic and Classical Periods


The article deals with the review of principal archaeological sites of the south-eastern Black Sea littoral (Kobuleti-Pichvnari, Petra-Tsikhisdziri, and Batumi Fort). Archeological study of these sites revealed that the coastline and the surrounding area have been populated since the Late Bronze Age at least. The appearance of Greek colonies in these areas from the end of the sixth century B.C. can be observed. All settlements were located at the mouth of the rivers which played an important role in their development since the mouths of the rivers were used as harbors. On the one hand, the junction of the sea and the river routes was pivotal for the development of urban settlements, and on the other, facilitated the spread of Greek culture in hinterland. Kobuleti-Pichvnari was the most advanced urban colonial settlement in the Classical and Hellenistic periods. Due to their strategic locations, Gonio-Apsarus gained particular importance in the Roman period and the city-fortress of Petra in the Early Byzantine period. The physical geography of the eastern part of the Black Sea littoral helped the region integrate into the Pontic world, and thus, become a part of the Greek, Roman and Byzantine spheres.

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ISSN 2240-774X  e-ISSN 2039-4985