Articles

State Fragility, Regime Survival and Spoilers in South Sudan


Abstract


This paper draws on the notion of state fragility in three dimensions – Authority failures, Service delivery failures and Legitimacy failures as developed by Stewart and Brown. Using Stewart and Brown’s analysis of fragile states, the authors examine how recent events in South Sudan push the country into being the most fragile state. In furthering this three-dimensional approach, we attempt two important questions. How has South Sudan succumbed to fragility since attaining independence? Who influences peace in the country? The authors grapple with these questions by investigating events in South Sudan from the period of signing the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA 1 2005), independence in 2011, signing CPA 2 in 2015 up to present. The paper singles out the desire for regime survival as the major cause of fragility. The authors further argue that insecurity and instability are exacerbated by spoiling behaviour of certain powers and individuals, whose activities undermine state authority and creates disorder.

Keywords

South Sudan; fragility; regime survival; spoilers; failed states

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13135/1825-263X/3319

References


Abu-Zaid, Ahmed. 2017. “Aftermaths of 3 years of armed conflict in South Sudan.” The Lancet 389 (10069): 599.

Ahmed, Einas. 2009. “The Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the dynamics of post-conflict political partnership in Sudan.” Africa Spectrum 2: 133-147.

Blanchard, Ploch. 2016. “Conflict in South Sudan and the Challenges Ahead.” Congressional Research Service Report Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress, Congressional Research Service 7-5700.

De Waal, Alex. 2009. “Mission without end? Peacekeeping in the African political marketplace.” International Affairs 85/1: 99-113.

De Waal, Alex. 2014. “When kleptocracy becomes insolvent: Brute causes of the civil war in South Sudan.” African Affairs 113 (452): 347-369.

De Waal, Alex. 2016. “A Political Marketplace Analysis of South Sudan’s Peace.” Medford, MA: Justice and Security Research Foundation Brief 2: 1-7.

Dix Sarah, Hussmann Karen, and Walton, Grant. 2012. “Risks of corruption to state legitimacy and stability in fragile situations.” U4 Issue 2012/3.

Harragin, Simon. 2011. “South Sudan: Waiting for Peace to Come Study from Bor, Twic East & Duk Counties in Jonglei.” Local to Global Protection 1-103.

Helman, Gerald, and Steven Ratner. 1992. “Saving failed states.” Foreign Policy 89: 3-20.

Haynie, Devon. 2017. “South Sudan is once again the World’s Most Fragile State.”

https://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2017-05-15/report-south-sudan-is-once-again-the-worlds-most-fragile-state. Accessed: 07.09.2017.

Justin, Peter Hakim and Lotje De Vries. 2019. “Governing Unclear Lines: Local Boundaries as a (Re)source of Conflict in South Sudan.” Journal of Borderlands Studies 34/1: 31-46.

Kasaija, Phillip. 2015. “IGAD’s Mediation in the Current South Sudan Conflict: Prospects and Challenges.” African Security 8/2: 120-145.

Lindenmayer, Elisabeth and Josie Lianna Kaye. 2009. A Choice for Peace?: The Story of Forty-One Days of Mediation in Kenya. New York: International Peace Institute (IPI).

Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton. Princeton University Press.

Mason, Simon (ed). 2012. “Translating Mediation Guidance into Practice: Commentary on the UN Guidance for Effective Mediation.” Mediation Support Network, No. 2, New York and Accra.

Mc Evoy, Claire and Emily LeBrun. 2010. Uncertain future: armed violence in Southern Sudan. Small Arms Survey, Geneva.

Mcloughlin, Claire. 2015. “Researching State Legitimacy: A Political Approach to a Political Problem.” DLP, Research Paper 36. Birmingham: Development Leadership Program, University of Birmingham.

Medani, Khalid Mustafa. 2011. “Strife and secession in Sudan.” Journal of Democracy 22/3: 135-149.

OECD. 2011. 2011 Report on International Engagement in Fragile States: Republic of South Sudan. OECD Publishing.

Onyango, George. 2012. “The Place of Spoilers in Peace Processes in Sudan.” African Journal of Political Science and International Relations 6/8: 167–180.

Pinaud, Clement. 2014. “South Sudan: civil war, predation, and the making of a military aristocracy.” African Affairs 113 (451): 192–211.

Rolandsen, Øystein. 2015. “Small and Far Between: Peacekeeping Economies in South Sudan.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 9/3: 353-371.

Sandu, Ciprian. 2014. “The South Sudan coup: A political rivalry that turned ethnic.” Conflict Studies Quarterly 7: 49-65.

Sarwar, Nadia. 2012. “Post-independence South Sudan: an era of hope and challenges.” Strategic Studies 32: 172-182.

Stewart, Frances and Brown, Graham. 2010. “Fragile States, CRISE.” Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity 3, June 2010.

Sudd Institute. 2014. South Sudan’s Crisis: Its Drivers, Key Players, and Post-Conflict Prospects. Juba, South Sudan: Sudd Institute Special Report.

The Economist. 2014. Back with a Vengeance: Conflict in South Sudan, 410(8876): 42. Mar 1, 2014, London.

The Sentry. 2016. “War Crimes Shouldn’t Pay. Stopping the looting and destruction in South Sudan.” Investigative Report, September 2016.

Thoms, Oskar and Ron James. 2007. “Do human rights violations cause internal conflict?” Human Rights Quarterly 29/3: 674-705.

Twijnstra, Rens and Kristof, Titeca. 2016. “Everything changes to remain the same? State and Tax Reform in South Sudan.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 549/2: 263-292.

Ylönen, Aleksi. 2016. “Reflections on peacebuilding interventionism: State-and nation building dilemmas in Southern Sudan (2005 to the present).” Global Change, Peace & Security 28/2: 213-223.

Wennmann, Achim. 2009. “Getting Armed Groups to the Table: peace processes, the political economy of conflict and the mediated state.” Third World Quarterly 30/6: 1123-1138.

Wilen, Nina. 2015. “How to unite enemy fighters into a single national army (and what that means for peace).” Washington Post.


Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 1825-263X

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.