La stringa rituale: una teoria delle varianti ritualistiche attraverso l’analisi di un sacrificio indiano antico


Ritual is a creative and artistic action – this is the central idea of this paper – and the proof of this suggestion is that every ritual could attest several variants. Through a deep survey on the aśvamedha in the Hindū textual sources, the author tries to demonstrate that in the religious history of India various aśvamedhas ex-ist. The ritual dynamics goes through the creation of a ritual string – a sequence of acts – the performers can transform and modify creating new strings. The analysis of the aśvamedha reveals a lot of problematic elements proving different ways to celebrate the same rite. The ritual string is the concept through which the author tries to understand the mechanism of ritual attitude: like grammar, the ritual has a cybernetic dimension and the ritual variability could be the new frontier of the researches about this.

Full Text:

PDF (Italiano)



AA.VV., Enciclopedia Garzanti di filosofia e epistemologia, logica formale, linguistica, psicologia, psicoanalisi, pedagogia, antropologia culturale, teologia, religioni, sociologia, Garzanti, Milano, 1990

Aithal (1986), Non-Ṛgvedic citations in the Āśvalāyana śrautasūtra, Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi.

Aklujkar (1996), The early history of Sanskrit as supreme language, in J. E. M. Houben, Ideology and status of Sanskrit: contributions to the history of the Sanskrit language, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 59-85.

Albright-Dumont (1934), A parallel between Indic and Babylonian Sacrificial Ritual, in “Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 54, n. 2, 107-128.

Allchin-Mode (1985), The interpretation of a seal from Chanhudaro and its significance for the religion of the Indus civilization, Seminario di studi asiatici, Napoli.

Altekar (1938), The position of women in hindu civilisation: from prehistoric times to the present day, The Culture publication house, Benares Hindu university, Benares.

and Religious Change, in Between the Empires. Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, edited by P. Olivelle, Oxford University Press, New York, 457-495.

Anthony (2007),The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Bandyopadhyaya (2007), Class and Religion in Ancient India, Anthem South Asian Studies, Anthem Press, New Delhi.

Bayet (1941), L’omen du cheval a Carthage: Timee, Virgile e le monnayage punique, in “Revue des Etudes Latines”, Vol. 19/1941, 170-176.

Bell (1997) C., Ritual: Perspectives and Dimensions, Oxford University Press,New York-Oxford, 1997.

Bennett-Pascal (1981), October Horse, in “Harvard Studies in Classical Philology”, Vol. 85, 261-291.

Bergunder et al. (2010), Preface to the Series “Ritual Dynamcis and the Science of Ritual” (by Editorial Board: Michael Bergunder/Jörg Gengnagel/Alexandra Heidle/Axel Michaels/Bernd Schneidmüller/Udo Simon) Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, V-VI.

Bhattacharyya (1975), Ancient Indian Rituals and their Social Contents, Totowa, London.

Bhawe (1939), Die Yajus des Aśvamedha: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion dieses Abschnittes des Yajurveda auf Grund der Überlieferung seiner fünf Schulen, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart.

Biardeau (1989), Histoires de Poteaux, Ecole française d’Extreme-Orient, Paris [in French].

Black (2007), The character of the self in ancient india: priests, kings, and women in the Early Upaniṣads, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Bleeker (1972), The contribution of the phenomenology o religion to the study of the history of religions, in Problems and Methods of the History of Religions, edited by Bianchi/Bleeker/Bausani, Brill, Leiden, 35-54

Bodewitz (1976), The daily evening and morning offering (agnihotra) according to the Brāhmaṇas, Brill, Leiden.

Bodewitz (1983), The Fourth Priest, in Selected studies on ritual in the Indian religions: Essays to D. J. Hoens, Brill, Leiden, 33-68.

Bonnefoy (1991), Asian Mythologies, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bryant (2007), Krishna: a sourcebook, Oxford University Press, New York.

Bubbio (2004), Il sacrificio, la ragione e il suo altrove, Città Nuova, Roma.

Bunko, Tokyo 1952.

Burkert (1983), Homo necans. The Anthropology of Ancient Greek sacrifical Ritual and Myth, University of California Press, Berkeley-Los Angeles.

Burkert (2004), Babylon, Memphis, Persepolis: Eastern Contexts of Greek Culture, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Buss-Michaels (2010), The Dynamics of Ritual Formality: the Morphology of Newar Death Rituals, in Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual, Vol 1. Grammars and Morphologies of Ritual Practice in Asia, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 99-116.

Calvino, Istituzione della religione cristiana, UTET, Torino, 1983.

Capozza (1963), Spartaco e il sacrificio del cavallo (Plut., Crass., 11, 8-9), in “Critica storica”, fasc. 3/1963, 251-293.

Catechismo della Chiesa cattolica, Libreria editrice vaticana, Città del Vaticano, 1992.

Cerquiglini (1999), In Praise of the Variant: A Critical History of Philology, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Chakrabarti (1980), The Paribhāṣās in the Śrautasūtras, Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, Calcutta.

Chapple-Venkatesananda (1984), The concise Yoga Vāsiṣṭha, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Chierichetti (2011)a, L’aśvamedha nella storia. Un’indagine sulle testimonianze storiche della celebrazione del sacrificio del cavallo in India, in “Kervan”, n. 13-14/2011, 127-145.

Chierichetti (2011)b, The aśvamedha in the Rāmāyaṇa: a way to reestablish the primordial unity of the sacrifice, in Il sacrificio alla base della costruzione dell’identità culturale indiana, Edizioni dell’Orso, Alessandria, 1-66.

Chierichetti (2011)c, L’Āśvalāyanaśrautasūtra come fonte per lo studio dell’aśvamedha. Analisi della stringa rituale secondo un metodo olistico, Tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Torino.

Clooney (1986), Jaimini’s Contribution to the Theory of Sacrifice as the Experience of Trascendence, in “History of Religion”, Vol. 25, n. 3/1986, 199-212.

Clooney (1987), Early Mīmāṃsā and Post-Modern Theology, in “Journal of the American Academy of Religion”, Vol. 55, n. 4, pp.659-684.

Clooney (1987), Why the Veda Has No Author: Language as Ritual in

Clooney (1990), Thinking Ritually: Rediscovering the Pūrva Mīmāṃsā of Jaimini, Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien (Publications of the De Nobili Research Library), Vienna.

Coomaraswamy (1936), A note on the Aśvamedha, in “Archiv Orientalnì”, S/1936, 306-317

D’Onofrio (1954), Le ‘nozze sacre’ della regina col cavallo, in “Studi e Materiali di Storia delle Religioni”, nn. 24-25/1953-1954, 133-162.

Dandekar (1995), The other six forms of the soma-sacrifice (also containing the Agnistoma expiation rites), Vaidika Saṃśodhana Majrala, Puna.

Dange (2000), Vedic Sacrifices early nature (some problems and discussions), Aryan Books Int., New Delhi.

Daniélou (1964),The Myths and Gods of India: The Classic Work on Hindu Polytheism, Inner Tradition International, Rochester.

Davis-Sigal-Weyuker (1983), Alphabets and Strings in Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science, Academic Press, Orlando.

Delebecque (1951), Le cheval dans l’Iliade: suivi d’un lexique du cheval chez Homère et d’un essai sur le cheval pré-Homérique, Klincksieck, Paris.

Della Palma (2001), Il teatro e gli orizzonti del sacro, V&P, Milano [1965].

Deshpande (1979), Sociolinguistic Attitudes in India. An Historical Recostruction, Karoma Publishers, Ann Arbor.

Deshpande (1993)a, Sanskrit & Prakrit. Sociolinguistic Issues, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi.

Deshpande (1993)b, Sanskrit Grammarians: Differing Perspectives in Cultural Geography, in M. Deshpande, Sanskrit & Prakrit, sociolinguistic issues, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, 53-74.

Detienne (1998), Apollon le couteau à la main: une approche expérimentale du polythéisme grec, Gallimard, Paris.

Devoto (1958), Scritti minori (Vol. 1), Le Monnier, Firenze.

Doniger (1988), Textual sources for the study of Hinduism, Manchester Univ. Press, Manchester.

Doniger O’Flaherty (1980), Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Dumont (1927), L’Aśvamedha: Description du sacrifice solennel du cheval dans le culte vedique d'apres les textes du Yajurveda blanc (Vājasaneyisaṃhitā, Śatapathabrāhmaṇa, Kātyāyanaśrautasūtra), Louvain-Paul Geuthner, J.B. Istas Imprimeur, Paris.

Dumont (1939), L’agnihotra: description de l'agnihotra dans le ritual vedique, d'apres les Srautasutras de Kātyāyana (Yajurveda blanc), Āpastamba,Hiranyakeśin, Baudhāyana, Manu (Yajurveda noir), Āśvalāyana, Śāṅkhāyana (Ṛgveda),et le Vaitana-Sūtra (Atharvaveda), The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Dumont (1948), The Horse-Sacrifice in the Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa: The Eigth and Ninth Prapāṭhakas of the Third Kāṇḍa of the Taittirīya-Brāhmaṇa with Translation, in “Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society”, Vol. 92, n. 6 (Dec. 27, 1948), 447-503.

Dumont (1950), The Horse-Sacrifice in the Taittiriya-Brahmana, in “Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 70, n. 2, 122-124

Eggeling (1882), The Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, according to the text of the Mādhyaṃdhina School, translated by J. Eggeling, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Eliade (1999), Il mito dell’eterno ritorno: archetipi e ripetizione, Edizioni Borla, Roma.

Eliade (1993), Mito e realtà, Borla, Roma.

Elizarenkova (1995) T.J., Language and style of the Vedic Ṛṣis, State University of New York, Albany.

Flinn (2007) F.K., Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Facts On File, New York.

Frawley (1991), Gods, sages and kings: Vedic secrets of ancient civilization, Passage Press, Salt Lake City.

Fuchs (1988), The Vedic horse sacrifice in its culture-historical setting, in S.C. Chakrabarti, Social Science and Social Concern, Felicitation Volume in Honour of Professor B. K. Roy Burman, Mittal Publications, 1988, 415-434.

Fuchs (1996), The Vedic horse sacrifice: in its culture-historical relations, Inter-India Publications, New Delhi.

Garcia-Ramon (1992), Griechisch ieròs und seine Varianten, vedisch iṣira, in R. Beeks, A. Lubotsky, J. Weitenberg, et al., Rekonstruktion und relative Chronologie, Akten der VIII. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft, Leiden, 31. August-4. September, 1987, Institut für Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, 188-191.

Garg (1992), Encyclopaedia of Hindu World, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.

Ghurye (1979), Vedic India, Popular Prakashan, Bombay.

Girard (2005), Violence and the sacred, The Athlone Press, London.

Golvers-Vande Walle (2003), The History of the Relations Between the Low Countries and China in the Qing Era (1644-1911), Leuven University Press, Leuven.

Gonda (1957), Ancient indian kingship from the religious point of view, in “Numen”, n. 3, fasc. 1 (Jan. 1956), fasc. 2 (Apr. 1956); n. 4, fasc. 1 (Jan. 1957), fasc. 2 (Apr. 1957), 36-71 (3.1); 122-155 (3.2); 24-58 (4.1); 127-164 (4.2).

Gonda (1962), Some Notes on the Study of Ancient-Indian Religious Terminology, in “History of Religion”, Vol. 1, n. 2, 243-273.

Gonda (1988): Mantra interpretation in the Śatapatha brāhmaṇa, Brill, Leiden.

Gonda (1989), Prayer and Blessing: Ancient Indian Ritual Terminology, Brill, Leiden.

Goossens (1939), Un texte grec relatif a l’Ashvamedha, Extract de “Journal Asiatique”.

Gopal (1983), India of Vedic Kalpasūtras, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.

Haldar (2008), A study of Soma sacrifices in the Aśvalayana Śrautasūtra, Sanskrit Book Depot, Kolkata.

Hazra (1955), The common Source of Origin of the Purāṇa Pancalakṣaṇa and the Mahābhārata, in “Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute”, n. 36, 190-203.

Heesterman (1985), The Inner Conflict of Tradition. Essays in Indian Ritual, Kingship, and Society, Oxford University Press, Delhi.

Heesterman (1993)a, La reception du “roi Soma”, in Essais sur le rituel, Vol. 3/1993, Peeters, Leuven, 7-14;

Heesterman (1993)b, The Broken World of Sacrifice. An Essay in Ancient Indian Ritual, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Heesterman (2010), The Development and Impact of Ancient Indian Ritual, in Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual, Vol 1. Grammars and Morphologies of Ritual Practice in Asia, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 203-214.

Hiltebeitel (2011), Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative, Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York.

Hopcroft-Rajeev Motwani-Ullman (1979), Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and Computation, Addison Wesley, Reading.

Howey (2002), The horse in magic and myth, Mineola/Dover [1923].

Hubbell (1928), Sacrifice in Antiquity, in “Yale Classical Studies”, n. 1, pp.181-192.

Hubert-Mauss (1899), Essai sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice, F. Alcan, Paris.

indo-aryennes, College de France, Institut de Civilisation Indienne, Edition Diffusion de Boccard, Paris, 97-264.

Isichei (1995), A history of Christianity in Africa: from antiquity to the present, W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Lawrenceville.

J.E.M. Houben (1996), Ideology and status of Sanskrit: contributions to the history of the Sanskrit language, E. J. Brill, Leiden.

Jamison (1995), Sacrificed Wife / Sacrificer’s Wife. Women, ritual and hospitality in ancient India, Oxford University Press, New York.

Johnson (1998),The Sauptikaparvan of the Mahābhārata: the massacre at night, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Joshi (1978), Interlocking of Late Harappan culture and Painted Grey Ware culture in the linght of recent excavations, in “Man and Environment”, n. 2, 98-101.

Kak (2002), The Ashvamedha: the rite and its logic, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.

Kanta (1953), A grammatical dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic), Moolchand Khairātī Rām Trust, Delhi.

Karmakar (1949), Aśvamedha. Its Original Significance, in “Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute”, n. 30, 332-345.

Karmakar (1953), The Pāriplava (revolving Cycle of Legends) at the Aśvamedha, in “Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute”, n. 33, 26-40.

Kashikar (1954), The Ritual of Vājapeya Sacrifice, in “Poona Orientalist”, n. 19, 40-46.

Kashikar (1968), A survey of the Śrautasūtras, University of Bombay, Bombay.

Khan (2006), Islam In Modern Asia, MD Publications Pvt Ltd, New Delhi.

Koskikallio (1992), Jaiminibhārata and aśvamedha, in “Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde Süd- und Östasiens”, n. 26, 111-119.

Koskikallio (1995), Epic Descriptions Of The Horse Sacrifice, in “Cracow Indological Studies”, Vol. 1 (International Conference On Sanskrit And Related Studies September 23-26, 1993, Cracow, Poland), The Enigma Press, Cracow, 165-177.

Kunin-Miles Watson (2006), Theories of Religion: A Reader, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick.

Kunte (1974), The Vicissitudes of Aryan Civilization in India: the history of the Vedic and Buddistic polities: their origin, prosperity and decline, Heritage, Delhi.

La Terza (1922), L’Aśvamedha nel RigVeda, in “Rivista Indo-Greca-Italica”, n. 6, 133-142.

Lamb (2002), Rapt in the name: the Ramnamis, Ramnam, and untouchable religion in Central India, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Lévi (2003), La doctrine du sacrifice dans les Brahmanas, Brepols, Turnhout [1898].

Macdonell (1897), Vedic Mythology, Trübner, Strassburg.

Mahony (1998), The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Maines-McCallion (2007), Transforming Catholicism: Liturgical Change in the Vatican II Church, Lexington Books, Plymouth.

Malamoud (2005), La danse des pierres: etudes sur la scene sacrificielle dans l’Inde ancienne,Seuil, Paris.

Mani (2005), A Journey Through India’s Past, Norther Book Centre, New Delhi.

Mazza (1999) E., The Celebration of the Eucharist: The Origin of the Rite and the Development of Its Interpretation, A Pueblo Book (The Liturgical Press), Collegeville.

McClymond (2008), Beyond Sacred Violence: A Comparative Study of Sacrifice, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

McDaniel (2003), Making Virtous Daughters and Wives: An Introduction to Women’Brata Rituals in Bengali Folk Religion, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Michaels (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Michaels (2010), The Grammar of Rituals, in Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual. Vol 1. Grammars and Morphologies of Ritual Practice in Asia, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 7-28.

Michaels-Mishra (2010), Introduction, in Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual. Vol 1. Grammars and Morphologies of Ritual Practice in Asia, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 3-6.

Miller (1985), The Vision of Cosmic Order in the Vedas, Routledge & Kegan, Paul, London/Boston/Melbourne/Henley.

Minkowski (1989), Janamejaya’s Sattra and Ritual Structure, in “Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 109, n. 3, 401-420.

Minunno (2004), Un’uccisione rituale fenicia, in “Studi epigrafici e linguistici sul Vicino Oriente antico”, Vol. 21/2004, 115-124.

Mitra (1979), Prehistoric India. Its place in the world’s cultures, Bharatiya Publishing House, Varanasi-Delhi.

Ninck (1935), Wodan und germanischer Schicksalsglaube, E. Diederichs Verlag, Jena.

Ogibenin (1973), Structure d’un mythe vedique, Mouton, The Hague-Paris.

Oinas (1997), Studies in Finnic Folklore, Curzon Press, London.

Parkhe (1982) M. S., Agnihotra: the Vedic solution for present-day problems, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth (Vaidika Saṃśodhana Maṇḍala), Poona.

Parpola (1983), The pre-Vedic Indian background of śrauta rituals, in F. Staal, Agni. The vedic ritual of the fire altar, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley, 41-75.

Parpola (1988), The coming of the Aryans to Iran and India and the cultural and ethnic identity of the Dāsas, in “Studia Orientalia”, Vol. 64, 195-302.

Parpola (1992), The ‘fig deity seal’ from Mohenjo-daro: its iconography and inscription, in C. Jarrige (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1989, Monographs in World Archaeology 14. Madison: Prehistory Press, 227-236.

Patton (2005), Bringing the Gods to Mind. Mantra and Ritual in Early Indian Sacrifice, University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles/London.

Penner (1985 ), Language, Ritual and Meaning, in “Numen”, n. 32, fasc. 1, 1-16,

Pollock (1985), The Theory of Practice of Theory in Indian Intellectual History, in “Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 105, n. 3/1985, 499-519.

Pollock (1998), The Cosmopolitan Vernacular, in “The Journal of Asian Studies”, Vol. 57, n. 1, 6-37.

Pollock (2001), The Death of Sanskrit, in “Comparative Studies in Society and History”, Vol. 43, n. 2, 392-426.

Pollock (2006), The language of the gods in the world of men: Sanskrit, culture, and power in premodern India, University of California Press, Berkeley-Los Angeles.

Prakash (1988), The critical and cultural study of the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇam, Govindram Hasanand, Delhi.

Proceedings of the conference “Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual”, Heidelberg 22.IX.2008 02.X.2008, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2010

Pruthi (2004), Vedic civilization, Discovering Publishing House, New Delhi.

Puhvel (1955), Vedic Aśvamedha and Gaulish Epomeduos, in “Language” (“Linguistic Society of America”), n. 31, 353-354.

Raja (1946), Was Soma an Intoxicating Drink of the People?, in “Adyar Bulletin Library”, n. 10, 90-105.

Ramachandran (1951), Aśvamedha site near Kalsi, in “Journal of Oriental Research Madras”, n. 21, 1-31.

Ranade (2006), Illustrated Dictionary of Vedic Rituals, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts - Aryan Books International, New Delhi.

Randal-O’Hallaron (2003), Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River.

Rappaport (1999), Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Rapson (1922), with W. Haig, R. Burn, H. Dodwell, M. Wheeler, The Cambridge history of India. Vol. 1. Ancient India, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK).

Ravera (1995), Introduzione alla filosofia della religione, UTET, Torino.

Rengarajan (1999), Glossary of Hinduism, Oxford & IBH Pub. Co.,New Delhi.

Renou (1942), Les connexions entre le rituel et la grammaire en Sanskrit, in “Journal Asiatique”, n. 233 (1941-1942), 105-165.

Renou (1949), La valeur du Silence dans le Culte Vedique, in “Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 69, n. 1, 11-18.

Renou-Filliozat (1985), L’Inde classique: manuel des elude indiennes, Librarie d’Amerique et d’Orient, Maissonneuve, Paris [1947-1953].

Rivière (1995), Les rites profanes, Presses universitaires de France, Paris.

Samuel (2008), The origins of yoga and tantra: Indic religions to the thirteenth century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Scharfe (1989), The State in Indian Tradition, Brill, Leiden.

Sharma (1977), Culture & Civilization as revealed in the Śrautasūtras, Nag Publishers, Delhi.

Sparreboom (1985), Chariots in the Veda, Brill, Leiden.

Spess (2000), Soma: the divine hallucinogen, Park Street Press, Rochester.

Staal (1979), The Meaninglessness of Ritual, in “Numen”, n. 26, fasc. 1, 2-22.

Staal (1982), The Science of Ritual, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona.

Staal (1983), The Agnicayana project, in Staal F., Agni. The vedic ritual of the fire altar, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley, 456-475.

Staal (1989), Rules without meaning. Ritual, Mantras and the Human Sciences, Peter Lang, New York.

Staal (1990), Jouer avec le feu. Pratique et theorie du rituel vedique, Edition Diffusion de Boccard, Paris.

Stuart Olson-Pappas (1994), An Ethnohistorical dictionary of the Russian and Soviet empires, Greenwood Press, Westport.

Stutley (1969), The Aśvamedha or Indian Horse Sacrifice, in “Folklore”, Vol. 80, n. 4, 253-261

Swennen (2007), Portrait du cheval sacre dans la religion vedique, in “Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik”, n. 24/2007, 174-221.

Talbott (1995), Sacred sacrifice: ritual paradigms in Vedic religion and early Christianity, P. Lang, New York.

Tejomayananda (1993), Hindu Culture: An Introduction,Chinmaya Mission West,Mumbai.

Teshima (2005), Night Ritual in Aśvamedha: An Outline of the Rite described in the old Śrauta-Sūtras of the Taittirīya School, in “Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies”, n. 53, fasc. 2, 1001-1004.

Teshima (2008), Die Entwicklung des vorbereitenden Rituals im Aśvamedha: ausgehend von der Darstellung im Vādhūla-Śrauta-Sūtra, Logos, Berlin.

Thachil (1985), The vedic and the christian concept of sacrifice, Pont. Inst. of Theology and Philosophy, Kerala.

Thapar (1978), Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations, Orient Langman Private Limited, Hyderabad.

Thapar (1983), The Archeological Background to the Agnicayana Ritual, in F. Staal, Agni. The vedic ritual of the fire altar, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley, 3-40.

Thite (1975), Sacrifice in the Brāhmaṇa-Texts, University of Poona, Poona.

Timpanaro (2005), The Genesis of Lachmann’s Method, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Torella (2011), The philosophical traditions of India: an appraisal, Indica book, Varanasi.

Tsuji (1952), On the relation between Brāhmaṇas and Śrautasūtra, The Toyo Bunko, Tokyo.

Verpoorten (1987), Mīmāṃsā Literature in A History of Indian Literature (Vol. 6, Fasc. 5), Otto Harrasowitz, Wiesbaden.

Wadley (2005), Essays on North Indian Folk Traditions, Chronicle Books, Bangalore.

Wangu (2003), Images of Indian Goddesses: Myths, Meanings, and Models, Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications, New Delhi.

Wasson (1971)a, Soma: divine mushroom of immortality, Hancourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.

Wasson (1971)b, The Soma of the Rig Veda: What Was It?, in “Journal of the American Oriental Society”, Vol. 91, n. 2/1971, 169-187.

Watkins (1995), How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics, Oxford University Press, New York.

Wilke (2010), Basic Categories of a Syntactical Approach to Rituals. Arguments for a “Unitary Ritual View” and the Paraśurāma-Kalpasūtra as “Test-Case”, in Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual, Vol 1. Grammars and Morphologies of Ritual Practice in Asia, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 215-262.

Winternitz (1920), Die Frau in den Indischen Religionen, Verlag von Curt Kabitzsch, Leipzig.

Witzel (1989), Tracing the Vedic Dialects, in Dialectes dans les litteratures, Collèges de France, Paris, 97-265.

Witzel (2006), Brahmanical Reaction to Foreign Influence and to Social, in Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE, (edited by P. Olivelle), Oxford University Press, New York, 457-500.

Womack (2003), Sport As Symbol: Images of the Athlete in Art, Literature and Song, McFarland and C. Publishers, Jefferson.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 1825-263X

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.