Combinatory and Complementary Practices of Values and Virtues in Design: A Reply to Reijers and Gordijn
The purpose of this paper is to review and critique Wessel Reijers and Bert Gordijn’s paper moving from value sensitive design to virtuous practice design. In doing so, it draws on recent literature on developing value sensitive design (VSD) to show how the authors’ virtuous practice design (VPD), at minimum, is not mutually exclusive to VSD. This paper argues that virtuous practice is not exclusive to the basic methodological underpinnings of VSD. This can therefore strengthen, rather than exclude the VSD approach. Likewise, this paper presents not only a critique of what was offered as a “potentially fruitful alternative to VSD” but further clarifies and contributes to the VSD scholarship in extending its potential methodological practices and scope. It is concluded that VPD does not appear to offer any original contribution that more recent instantiations of VSD have not already proposed and implemented.
A. Borning et al., Informing Public Deliberation. Value Sensitive Design of Indicators for a Large-Scale Urban Simulation, in “ECSCW 2005: Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work”, Springer, (2005), pp. 449-468.
L. Caviola et al., Cognitive biases can affect moral intuitions about cognitive enhancement, in “Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience”, XVIII (2014), pp. 1-5
A. Correljé et al., Responsible Innovation in Energy Projects. Values in the Design of Technologies, Institutions and Stakeholder Interactions, in “Responsible Innovation 2”, ed. by B.J. Koops et al., Springer International Publishing, 2015, pp. 183-200, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-17308-5_10.
M. Cummings, Integrating ethics in design through the value-sensitive design approach, in “Science and Engineering Ethics”, XII (2006), no. 4, pp. 701-715, http://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-006-0065-0.
A. Czeskis et al., Parenting from the pocket: Value tensions and technical directions for secure and private parent-teen mobile safety, in “Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium on Usable
Privacy and Security”, (2010), pp. 1-15
B. Friedman, D. G. Hendry, Value Sensitive Design. Shaping Technology with Moral Imagination, Cambridge (MA), MIT Press, 2019.
Friedman et al., Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems, in Early engagement and new technologies: Opening up the laboratory, ed. by N. Doorn, D. Schuurbiers, I. van de Poel, M. E. Gorman, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 70.
B. Friedman, P. H. Kahn Jr, Human Values, Ethics, and Design, in The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook, Boca Raton, CRC Press, (2007), 1209-1233.
B. Friedman et al., Envisioning Cards, University of Washington, Value Sensitive Design Research Lab, 2017, http://envisioningcards.com.
B. Friedman, D. G. Hendry, A. Borning, A Survey of Value Sensitive Design Methods, in “Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction”, XI (2017), no. 2, pp. 63-125, https://doi.org/10.1561/1100000015.
B. Friedman, L. P. Nathan, D. Yoo, Multi-Lifespan Information System Design in Support of Transitional Justice. Evolving Situated Design Principles for the Long(er) Term, in “Interacting with Computers”, XXIX (2017), no. 1, pp. 80-96. https://doi.org/10.1093/iwc/iwv045.
L. Gazzaneo, A. Padovano, S. Umbrello, Designing Smart Operator 4.0 for Human Values. A Value Sensitive Design Approach, in International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing (ISM 2019) in “Procedia Manufacturing”, XLII (2020), pp. 219-226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2020.02.073
C. A. Le Dantec, E. S. Poole, S. P. Wyche, Values As Lived Experience. Evolving Value Sensitive Design in Support of Value Discovery, in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI ’09, ACM, New York (NY), 2009, pp. 1141-1150. https://doi.org/10.1145/1518701.1518875
F. Longo, A. Padovano, S. Umbrello, Value-Oriented and Ethical Technology Engineering in Industry 5.0. A Human-Centric Perspective for the Design of the Factory of the Future, in “Applied Sciences”, X (2020), no. 12, 4182, pp. 1-25 https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124182
A. MacIntyre, Whose Justice? Which Rationality?, London, University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.
N. Manders-Huits, What Values in Design? The Challenge of Incorporating Moral Values into Design, in “Science and Engineering Ethics”, XVII (2011), no. 2, pp. 271-287, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-010-9198-2
L. P. Nathan, Envisioning Criteria, in Value Sensitive Design. Shaping Technology with Moral Imagination, ed. B. Friedman, D. G. Hendry, Boston (MA), MIT Press, 2019, pp. 162-164
L. P. Nathan et al., Value Scenarios. A Technique for Envisioning Systemic Effects of New Technologies, in “CHI ‘07 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems” (2007), pp. 2585-2590
M. C. Nussbaum, The Fragility of Goodness: Luck and Ethics in Greek Tragedy and Philosophy, 2nd ed., Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2001, http://www.cambridge.org/gb/academic/subjects/philosophy/ethics/fragility-goodness-luck-and-ethics-greek-tragedyand-philosophy-2nd-edition#ZSWphmvlMH11Ollq.99.
W. Reijers, B. Gordijn, Moving from value sensitive design to virtuous practice design, in “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, XVII (2019), no. 2, pp. 196-209, http://doi.org/10.1108/JICES-10-2018-0080
J. Timmermans, Y. Zhao, J. van den Hoven, Ethics and Nanopharmacy. Value Sensitive Design of New Drugs, in “NanoEthics”, V (2011), no. 3, pp. 269-283, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11569-011-0135-x
S. Umbrello, Imaginative Value Sensitive Design: How Moral Imagination Exceeds Moral Law Theories in Informing Responsible Innovation, Edinburgh, University of Endinburgh, 2018.
S. Umbrello, The Moral Psychology of Value Sensitive Design. The Methodological Issues of Moral Intuitions for Responsible Innovation, in “Journal of Responsible Innovation”, V (2018), no. 2, pp. 186-200, https://doi.org/10.1080/23299460.2018.1457401
S. Umbrello, Atomically Precise Manufacturing and Responsible Innovation. A Value Sensitive Design Approach to Explorative Nanophilosophy, in “International Journal of Technoethics”, X (2019), no. 2, pp. 1-21, https://doi.org/10.4018/IJT.2019070101.
S. Umbrello, Beneficial Artificial Intelligence Coordination by Means of a Value Sensitive Design Approach, in “Big Data and Cognitive Computing”, III (2019), 3, 5, pp. 1-13, https://doi.org/10.3390/bdcc3010005
S. Umbrello, Imaginative Value Sensitive Design. Using Moral Imagination Theory to Inform Responsible Technology Design, in “Science and Engineering Ethics”, XXVI (2020), no. 2, pp. 575-595, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-019-00104-4
S. Umbrello, Meaningful Human Control over Smart Home Systems. A Value Sensitive Design Approach, in “Humana.Mente Journal of Philosophical Studies”, XII (2020), no. 37, pp. 40-65.
S. Umbrello, Conceptualizing Policy in Value Sensitive Design: A Machine Ethics Approach, in Machine Law, Ethics, and Morality in the Age of Artificial Intelligence, ed. by Steven Thompson, IGI Global, 2020.
S. Umbrello, A. F. De Bellis, A Value-Sensitive Design Approach to Intelligent Agents, in Artificial Intelligence Safety and Security, ed. by R. V. Yampolskiy, CRC Press, 2018, pp. 395-410, https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.17162.77762
S. Vallor, Technology and the virtues. A philosophical guide for a future worth wanting, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016.
J. van den Hoven. I. van de Poel, Engineering Design Practice, in Value Sensitive Design: Shaping Technology with Moral Imagination, ed. by B. Friedman, D. G. Hendry, Boston (MA), MIT Press, 2019, pp. 157-162.
I. van de Poel, Translating Values into Design Requirements, in Philosophy and Engineering: Reflections on Practice, Principles and Process, ed. by D. P. Michelfelder, N. McCarthy, D. E. Goldberg, Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2013, pp. 253-266.
A. van Wynsberghe, Designing Robots for Care. Care Centered Value-Sensitive Design, in “Science and Engineering Ethics”, XIX (2013), no. 2, pp. 407-33, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-011-9343-6.
T. Winkler, S. Spiekermann, Twenty Years of Value Sensitive Design. A Review of Methodological Practices in VSD Projects, in “Ethics and Information Technology”, (2018), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-018-9476-2.
J. Woelfer et al., Improving the Safety of Homeless Young People with Mobile Phones. Values, Form and Function, in “Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems”, (2011), pp. 1707-1716
D. Yoo, Stakeholder Tokens. A Constructive Method for Value Sensitive Design Stakeholder Analysis, in “Ethics and Information Technology”, (2018), pp. 1-5.
D. Yoo, et al., A value sensitive action-reflection model. evolving a co-design space with stakeholder and designer prompts, in “Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems”, (2013), pp. 419-428.
D. Yoo et al., Multi-Lifespan Design Thinking. Two Methods and a Case Study with the Rwandan Diaspora, in “Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems”, ACM, 2016, pp. 4423-4434.