Filosofia https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia <div class="page"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Rivista annuale fondata nel 1950 da Augusto Guzzo.</p> </div> </div> </div> Mimesis Edizioni it-IT Filosofia 0015-1823 Ricordo di Vittorio Mathieu https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5231 Andrea Poma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 9 10 10.13135/2704-8195/5231 Filosofia e robotica: introduzione https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5075 Maurizio Balistreri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 13 20 10.13135/2704-8195/5075 Guardare i sex robots attraverso le lenti femministe https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5076 <p>Since the 1970s, feminisms have stressed the intersection between gender and technology. Yet, while being mainly focused on the female access to technology, reproductive technologies and a cyborg future, no feminist narrative has ever addressed the ongoing robotic revolution and its relating challenges to the notion of gender, as in the case of sex robots. Shaped as humans and endowed with basic AI capabilities, sex robots are machines programmed to provide sexual performances; their stereotypical shape and behaviour, though, raise questions on their potential to perpetuate gender inequality. Therefore, this paper seeks to assess female sex robots through feminist lens and to repurpose them as a feminist technology.</p> Carlotta Rigotti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 21 38 10.13135/2704-8195/5076 Il robot SanTO: il nuovo con uno sguardo al passato https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5077 <p>Verso il 1560, Filippo II di Spagna commissionò la realizzazione di un “monaco meccanico”, un piccolo automa umanoide che aveva l’abilità di muoversi e camminare. Secoli dopo, è stato creato un robot umanoide cattolico. Con l’apparenza di una statua di un santo e alcune abilità interattive, è fatto su misura per utenti cattolici per vari utilizzi. Il robot contiene un sistema di dialogo, che integrato nella comunicazione multimodale composta da visione, tocco, voce e luci, guida l’interazione con gli utenti. La creazione di SanTO offre nuovi spunti sul concetto di sacralità applicato in un robot, e sul ruolo dell’automazione della religione. Se da un lato la religione può essere usata come strumento per rendere i robot più familiari agli utenti, dall’altro questo connubio presenta nuovi quesiti etici e necessita risposte e regolamentazione.</p> Gabriele Trovato ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 39 50 10.13135/2704-8195/5077 Macchine Guerriere Autonome https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5078 <p>Artificial Intelligence is an epochal revolution, a real evolutionary leap in humanity, in both the cognitive sphere and that of material and social consequences. In the military, its enormous impact is looming: the Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems introduce changes in the art of war to make the advent of firearms pale between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and in this sense they can be equated only to nuclear weapons. The essay aims to examine the issues and problems inherent in the advent of autonomous weapons, not even remotely piloted by humans, in both the tactical and strategic spheres. We also try to consider the problem from the point of view of both classical war theory and international law. The positive effects of this technological revolution are discussed in the course of the text and do not constitute a separate chapter.</p> Paolo Ceola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 51 62 10.13135/2704-8195/5078 Macchine leibniziane? https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5233 <p>Are robots capable of forming concepts? The problem can be addressed starting from a similar question, namely that relating to the possibility that animals are recognized as capable of forming concepts. Different positions have been addressed on this issue. A profitable possibility of analysis is offered by Davidson’s skeptical position in his influential <em>Rational Animals</em>. I examine some of the objections made to the position that denies that animals can form concepts. I affirm that none of these are conclusive and I draw the idea that if the ability to form concepts must be recognized to animals, then the same position must also be supported with respect to robots.</p> Pierpaolo Marrone ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 63 74 10.13135/2704-8195/5233 Machine ethics: stato dell’arte e osservazioni critiche https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5234 <p>This essay aims to introduce the field of study known as machine ethics, viz. the aspect of the ethics of artificial intelligence concerned with the moral behavior of AI systems. I discuss the present potential of this technology and put forward some ethical considerations about the benefits and perils deriving from the development of this field of research. There is an urge of debate, considering that there is an increase in machine usage in ethically-sensitive domains, to ensure that future technology becomes advantageous for humans and their well-being.</p> Leonardo Cracco ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 75 89 10.13135/2704-8195/5234 Etica funzionale https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5235 <p>The purpose of Machine Ethics is to develop autonomous technologies that are able to manage not just the technical aspects of a tasks, but also the ethical ones. As a consequence, the notion of Artificial Moral Agent (AMA) has become a fundamental element of the discussion. Its meaning, however, remains rather unclear. Depending on the author or the context, the same expression stands for essentially different concepts. This casts a suspicious light on the philosophical significance of Machine Ethics. In particular, the risk arises of discarding Machine Ethics as a whole on the basis of accusations that, however, apply exclusively to one specific understanding of what AMAs are – but not to other, more adequate and convincing conceptualisations. To avoid this pitfall, this essay tries to elaborate a philosophically sound interpretation of AMAs and to sketch its primary component, i.e., the notion of functional ethics.</p> Fabio Fossa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 91 106 10.13135/2704-8195/5235 Combinatory and Complementary Practices of Values and Virtues in Design: A Reply to Reijers and Gordijn https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5236 <p>The purpose of this paper is to review and critique Wessel Reijers and Bert Gordijn’s paper moving from value sensitive design to virtuous practice design. In doing so, it draws on recent literature on developing value sensitive design (VSD) to show how the authors’ virtuous practice design (VPD), at minimum, is not mutually exclusive to VSD. This paper argues that virtuous practice is not exclusive to the basic methodological underpinnings of VSD. This can therefore strengthen, rather than exclude the VSD approach. Likewise, this paper presents not only a critique of what was offered as a “potentially fruitful alternative to VSD” but further clarifies and contributes to the VSD scholarship in extending its potential methodological practices and scope. It is concluded that VPD does not appear to offer any original contribution that more recent instantiations of VSD have not already proposed and implemented.</p> Steven Umbrello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 107 121 10.13135/2704-8195/5236 L’etnografo e il narratore https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5237 <p>Walter Benjamin is a perfect interlocutor for cultural anthropology, which has often taken inspiration from his thought to widen its critical stance. In particular, in this article I aim to show the affinities between the figure of the storyteller, as described in Benjamin’s famous essay on Leskov, and the ethnographer. In the first part of the article, I argue that ethnography is one of the main heirs of Benjamin’s “art of storytelling”, sharing with the latter the dialogical roots, the handcraft nature and the moral dimensions. To this aim, in the last part of the article I present and discuss the works of Lila Abu-Lughod, Steven Caton and Stefania Pandolfo, whose narrative and experimental forms testify clearly the deep assonances between ethnography and Benjamin’s thought.</p> Carlo Capello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 125 144 10.13135/2704-8195/5237 Rovine https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5238 <p>The paper develops a typology of ruins depending on the attempts of defunctionalize and re-functionalize them. Starting from anthropological premises (the idea of trace in documentality), and following the method of Marc Augé, ruins are thus distinguished in proper ruins (e.g. those in Simmel), debris and sites. An analysis of the experience of ruins is proposed on the two levels of flânerie and hermeneutical comprehension. The temporal problem of the ruin (studied by authors such as Benjamin, Freud and Heidegger) is solved in spatial terms with its definition as a “natural heterotopia” through a close confrontation with Foucault: this new definition opens up new possibilities for a re-functionalisation, yet different from a substitution or a re-use of ruins. Those possibilities are artistical and political practices, often situated at the margin or even deviant: artistic performances, writing, squatting, integrated conservation, re-valorisation, free fruition, use as photography or cinematography subject.</p> Martino Manca ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 145 160 10.13135/2704-8195/5238 Dodici proposizioni sui libri, la lettura e l’ospitalità https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5240 <p>L’intento di questo breve scritto è di rendere omaggio ai libri, i più fedeli compagni di conversazione che gli esseri umani possano incontrare. Con l’ausilio di dodici proposizioni si cercherà di tenere traccia degli infiniti motivi per cui mostrare loro gratitudine, che sia perché i libri ci permettono di navigare in acque sconosciute e, al contempo, di ritrovare porti sicuri nel dedalo della nostra memoria o perché ognuna delle loro pagine è una finestra sul mondo o, ancora, perché sono maestri di tolleranza, ospitando al loro interno le voci più distanti e guidandoci verso una pedagogia dell’ascolto. Un ascolto che deve partire dal loro silenzio, modulato dalla punteggiatura, senza il quale non potremmo cogliere l’armonia e il ritmo delle parole, in grado di abitare la nostra coscienza anche molto tempo dopo averle lette. A concludere il saggio sono alcuni moniti: i libri non si possono mai chiudere del tutto, in quanto questo equivarrebbe a una censura e una contraddizione, non si possono bruciare, strappare, maltrattare, dissacrare, perché soffocheremmo il loro respiro, che dona all’umanità la capacità di vivificare il mondo. Per tutti questi motivi, le biblioteche, essendo le case dei libri, devono essere rispettate e abitate come spazi sacri, nel senso che, attraverso i libri, ci aprono al mistero della vita, del tempo, della verità.</p> Joao Maria André ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 169 174 10.13135/2704-8195/5240 João Maria André, "Douta Ignorância. Linguagem e Diálogo. O poder e os limites da palavra em Nicolau de Cusa", Coimbra, Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra, 2019, 451 pp. https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5241 <p><em>Learned Ignorance. Language and Dialogue. The power and limits of the word in Nicholas of Cusa</em> by João Maria André is a work that presents cusanian thinking from three thematic lines: Learned Ignorance, Language and Dialogue with a particular emphasis on the power and limits of word. In the first part dedicated to Learned Ignorance André demonstrates how Nicholas of Cusa theorized the notion of learned ignorance and outlines its anthropological dimensions. He demonstrates that it is a philosophy of interpretation that has three meanings: a hermeneutic, an ethical and an aesthetic. In the second part André focuses on the theme of Language, with emphasis on the hermeneutics of divine names in the tension between finitude and infinitude. In the third part entitled Dialogue the author approaches the coincidence of opposites and the concept of <em>transumptio</em>. He examines the relationship between the actions of listening and speaking and, finally, presents Nicholas of Cusa's legacy to globalized society.</p> Flávio Marcos dos Passos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 177 181 10.13135/2704-8195/5241 Benjamin Dober, "Ethik des Trostes. Hans Blumenbergs Kritik des Unbegrifflichen" https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5242 <p>Review of Benjamin Dober’s book on Hans Blumenberg. This work can be read in first approximation as an introduction to Blumenberg’s philosophical anthropology within his historical context, but it also aims to find out in the anthropological premises of Blumenberg’s thought the key to investigate the ethical dimension of his works on nonconceptual forms such as the myth and the metaphor, a dimension which is not immediately evident in Blumenberg’s books.</p> Luca Marras ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 183 186 10.13135/2704-8195/5242 Miguel Benasayag, "Fonctionner ou exister?" https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5243 <p>With this book Benasayag does not claim to establish an ‘ontological’ separation between existence and function, but would rather return to that complex unity between the two dimensions of life.</p> <p>Today, we see an indistinctness between function and existence and this is seen in the elderly who are considered ‘old’. To be elderly means, according to Benasayag, determining non-possibilities, that is to say limits that protect, while technology makes us believe that everything is possible. So that every limit must be banished arriving even to, as the merchants of transhumanism do, “considerare la morte come un funzionamento fisiologico che si potrebbe cambiare” (p. 42 [to consider death as a physiological function that could be changed]).</p> <p>We also look almost with horror at our fragilities with the aim of adhering as much as possible to the fluidity and flexibility required. Everything is reduced to the linear time marked by the clock and we are obsessed with gaining time.</p> <p>This book wants to be an invitation to participate in a life that fully manifests itself in every situation, without hiding behind some labels that tell us nothing about who we really are. And to do that you need courage. Because it is only in this way that we can dare to exist and fell fully alive.</p> Stefano Marsiglia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 187 190 10.13135/2704-8195/5243 Maurizio Balistreri, "Sex robot. L’amore al tempo delle macchine" https://www.ojs.unito.it/index.php/filosofia/article/view/5245 <p>A new book by Maurizio Balistreri, <em>Sex robot. L’amore al tempo delle macchine</em>, is reviewed. Sex robots not only exacerbate social, ethical and cultural issues that already exist, but also come with emergent and novel ones. This book is intended to build on the recent research on both robotics and the growing scholarship on sex robots more generally, however with greater attention to the developments of the philosophical issues of how to deal with these new artefacts and steps for living among these types of systems into the future.&nbsp;</p> Steven Umbrello ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 65 191 193 10.13135/2704-8195/5245