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Subhead level one
Subhead level two
Footnotes can be used to supplement the Author-Date References style, to provide additional relevant commentary, and/or to cite sources that do not readily lend themselves to the Author-Date References system.
Note: numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
In the text, note numbers are superscripted, as well as in the notes themselves.
Note: numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation.
Footnotes are followed by a period.
Pages should be numbered at the top of the page, flush right verso, flush left verso.
Every quotation in the text is introduced and closed by double quotation marks. Punctuation at the end of the quotations is set before the quotation marks:
In “What is Enlightenment,” Foucault (1984d) writes, “Thinking back on Kant’s text, I wonder whether we may not envisage modernity rather as an attitude than as a period of history.”
A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation is singled-spaced and takes no quotation marks, but you should leave an extra line space immediately before and after. (Please, check the template). The citations for block quotations begin after the final punctuation of the quotation. No period is required either before or after the opening or closing parentheses of block quotation documentation:
Rose (1999) eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:
In a society of control, a politics of conduct is designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of communication. And these enwrap each individual life decision and action … in a web of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to maintain particular types of control over their conduct. (246)
This quotation also highlights the significant issue of visibility, or, rather, invisibility of said networks.
- For emphasis within a quotation, add [author's emphasis] after your citation.
- E.g., "History and biology. The skin between us that kept us apart, and sheltered us against the hurt we inflicted on each other. The skin between us: membrane, veil, mirror. A shared skin" (25) [author’s emphasis].
- For emphasis outside a quotation, we encourage using italics; should you prefer to use quotation marks, be sure to use single, as opposed to double, quotation marks in such instances
- e.g. Such 'inclusivity' is actually a surrogate of multiculturalism.
- For translated texts: original in text, translated version in footnotes. Please add [author's translation] after your citation.
- Use “ellipses,” or three spaced periods, to indicate the omission of words from a quoted passage. Together on the same line, they should include additional punctuation when applicable, such as a sentence ending period.
Enlightenment thinkers believed in the “universal, eternal, and . . . immutable qualities of all of humanity” (Harvey 1990, 12).
- Use italics to indicate a foreign word the reader is unlikely to know. If the word is repeated several times (made known to the reader), then it needs to be italicized only upon its first occurrence. When you use italics for emphasis within a quotation, you have to let the reader know the italics were not a part of the original quotation. Phrases such as “emphasis added,” “emphasis mine,” “italics added,” or “italics mine” are all acceptable. The phrase should be in the parentheses following the quotation in the text itself (after other citation information and a semicolon, when applicable). This information can also be presented in a footnote.
We should be alarmed by such a realization, Agamben argues, because “in the camp, the state of exception … is now given a permanent spatial arrangement, which as such nevertheless remains outside the normal order” (169; emphasis added).
- Use square brackets to add clarifying words, phrases, or punctuation to direct quotations when necessary.
- When necessary, quotations within quotations are enclosed in single quotation marks, e.g.
Foucault writes that “discipline ‘makes’ individuals;; it is the specific technique of a power that regards individuals both as object and as instruments of its exercise” (188).
Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name:
- Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
- Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization. Lowercase terms used to describe periods, for example, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
A semicolon is used to separate a citation and a relevant but short comment (e.g., Agamben 2008, 115-33; political issues are addressed here) in a single parenthetical citation. A semicolon should be used to separate two or more references in a single parenthetical citation as well.
Author-Date System: Sample Citations
The following examples illustrate citations using the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition (http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/16/ch15/ch15_toc.html).
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
(Pollan 2006, 99–100)
Two or more authors
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf.
(Ward and Burns 2007, 52)
For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the reference list; in the text, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”):
(Barnes et al. 2010)
Editor, translator, or compiler instead of author
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Lattimore 1951, 91–92)
Editor, translator, or compiler in addition to author
García Márquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape.
(García Márquez 1988, 242–55)
Chapter or other part of a book
Kelly, John D. 2010. “Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War.” In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Kelly 2010, 77)
Chapter of an edited volume originally published elsewhere (as in primary sources)
Cicero, Quintus Tullius. 1986. “Handbook on Canvassing for the Consulship.” In Rome: Late Republic and Principate, edited by Walter Emil Kaegi Jr. and Peter White. Vol. 2 of University of Chicago Readings in Western Civilization, edited by John Boyer and Julius Kirshner, 33–46. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Originally published in Evelyn S. Shuckburgh, trans., The Letters of Cicero, vol. 1 (London: George Bell & Sons, 1908).
(Cicero 1986, 35)
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book
Rieger, James. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
(Rieger 1982, xx–xxi)
Book published electronically
If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle edition.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.
(Kurland and Lerner, chap. 10, doc. 19)
Article in a print journal
In the text, list the specific page numbers consulted, if any. In the reference list entry, list the page range for the whole article.
Weinstein, Joshua I. 2009. “The Market in Plato’s Republic.” Classical Philology 104:439–58.
(Weinstein 2009, 440)
Article in an online journal
Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.
Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. 2009. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115:405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.
(Kossinets and Watts 2009, 411)
Article in a newspaper or popular magazine
Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text (“As Sheryl Stolberg and Robert Pear noted in a New York Times article on February 27, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. The following examples show the more formal versions of the citations. If you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an access date only if your publisher or discipline requires one. If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.
Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010. “But Enough about Me.” New Yorker, January 25.
Stolberg, Sheryl Gay, and Robert Pear. 2010. “Wary Centrists Posing Challenge in Health Care Vote.” New York Times, February 27. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/28/us/politics/28health.html.
(Mendelsohn 2010, 68)
(Stolberg and Pear 2010)
Kamp, David. 2006. “Deconstructing Dinner.” Review of The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals, by Michael Pollan. New York Times, April 23, Sunday Book Review. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/23/books/review/23kamp.html.
Thesis or dissertation
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.
Paper presented at a meeting or conference
Adelman, Rachel. 2009. “ ‘Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On’: God’s Footstool in the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition.” Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 21–24.
A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“As of July 19, 2008, the McDonald’s Corporation listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation.
McDonald’s Corporation. 2008. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.
Blog entry or comment
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010, . . .”), and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, cite the blog post there but mention comments in the text only. (If an access date is required, add it before the URL; see examples elsewhere in this guide.)
Posner, Richard. 2010. “Double Exports in Five Years?” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21. http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/beckerposner/2010/02/double-exports-in-five-years-posner.html.
E-mail or text message
E-mail and text messages may be cited in running text (“In a text message to the author on March 1, 2010, John Doe revealed . . .”), and they are rarely listed in a reference list. In parenthetical citations, the term personal communication (or pers. comm.) can be used.
(John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)
(John Doe, pers. comm.)
Item in a commercial database
For items retrieved from a commercial database, add the name of the database and an accession number following the facts of publication. In this example, the dissertation cited above is shown as it would be cited if it were retrieved from ProQuest’s database for dissertations and theses.
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. “Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty.” PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).
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