Terms of address in the Pubian dialect of Lampung (Indonesia)
AbstractOne of Lampung (Sumatra, Indonesia) sub-ethnic groups, the Pubian Lampung people, has unique and varied terms of address equipped with a set of rules to use them. However, despite the great importance of the terms of address of the Pubian dialect of the Lampung language as assets of local and national cultures that need attention, protection and development, few researchers have studied this issue. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the terms of address used in the Pubian Lampung language. This study, which provides a descriptive analysis of the entire system of terms of address, was conducted through a qualitative approach in which the data were collected through observations and interviews. The results of this study show that the terms of address of the Pubian Lampung language include: 1. kinship terms of address based on blood relation and marriage; 2. non-kinship terms of address used to address conversation partners from the same ethnicity, newly-known/unknown conversation partners from the same ethnicity, known conversation partners from the same ethnicity, conversation partners of different ethnicities, newly-known or unknown conversation partners of different ethnicities, known conversation partners of different ethnicities; 3. terms of address based on family background which include religious, ordinary (non-noble), noble families; 4. terms of endearment; 5. terms of reference; 6. terms of address based on birth order; 7. customary title terms of address based on customary status/rank and marriage; 8. pronouns of address; 9. terms of address of proper names; and 10. religious terms of address. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study with some suggestions for future research are discussed.
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