European Renewable Energy. Applying Circular Economy Thinking to Policy-Making

  • Helen Kopnina Institute of Cultural Anthropology and Development Sociology, Leiden University, The Netherlands. Sustainable Business Programme, The Hague University of Applied Science, The Netherlands.


This article addresses European energy policy through conventional and transformative sustainability approaches. The reader is guided towards an understanding of different renewable energy options that are available on the policy making table and how the policy choices have been shaped. In arguing that so far, European energy policy has been guided by conventional sustainability framework that focuses on eco-efficiency and ‘energy mix’, this article proposes greater reliance on circular economy (CE) and Cradle to Cradle (C2C) frameworks.  Exploring the current European reliance on biofuels as a source of renewable energy, this article will provide recommendations for transition to transformative energy choices.
Original Papers