Environmental Security and Sustainability of Community Resources in Nigeria. Promoting Community Participation through Adult Environmental Education.

  • Christiana Uzoaru Okorie Department of Adult and Non-Formal Education, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • Dokubo Chidinma Department of Educational Foundation, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Rivers State, Nigeria


This paper examines the question of how daily human activities have created environmental insecurity and the implications for the sustainability of community resources in Nigeria. Particular reference is made to examples in Rivers State and Ebonyi State. Through its different agencies working at state and local levels the government has started to introduce various measures to monitor the effects of human activities on the environment and resources in the state. In this respect, we discuss the introduction of adult environmental education programmes for environmental sustainability and security. When adults receive adequate information through awareness-raising activities, we consider how they can be equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to manage the environment in a sustainable manner and prevent environmental insecurity.


Arokoyu, S.B. (2004). Sustainability and sustainable development: Concept and application. In S.B. Arokoyu, O.S., Nwosu, V.U.Dienye & M. Ifeanacho (Eds). Perspectives on world issues and problems.17-26. Port Harcourt: Amethyst & Colleagues.

Asian-South Pacific Framework for Adult and Community Environmental Education. (ASPBAE, 1995), Darwin: EEP (Environmental Education Programme of ASPBAE).

Benavides, Marta. (1992). Lessons from 500 years of a new world order: Towards the 21st century: Education for quality of life. UNCED, 1992 Convergence, XXV (2), 37-45.

Bowander, B. (1987). Environmental problems in developing countries. Progress in physical geography. Journal of physical geography.11.246-259

Clover, D.E. (1997). From words to action: Environmental adult education, under adult learning in the context of environment, health and population, in CONFLNTEA V Background Pamrs. Bonn: UIE.

Clover, D. E. (1999). Learning patterns of landscape and life: Towards a learning framework for environmental adult education. A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the of Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Equity Studies in the Sociology of Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.

Efobi, K. O. (1994). Studies in urban planning. Enugu: Fidelity Publishers and Printers Co. Ltd.

Eheazu B.A. (2016). Situational challenges of environmental degradation in Nigeria: “Adult education as a response”

Fagbohun, O. (2010). ‘The emergence and development of environmental law in Nigeria (1960 – 2010)’, in Azinge (ed.) Law and Development in Nigeria: 50 Years of Nationhood. (Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 2010).

Guevara, J.R.(2000). Facilitating environmental adult education in the Philippines: Transformation in action, In Clover, et. al. (Eds.) (2000), Awakening sleepy knowledge, London: Zed Books.

Ibikunle-Johnson, V, and Rugumayo, E. (1987). Environmental education through adult education. Nairobi: African Association for Literacy and Adult Education.

Ibikunle-Johnson, V. (1989). Managing the community environment: Grassroots participation and environmental education. In United Nations conference on environment and development. (UNCED,1992) Convergence, XXII(4), 13-23.

ICAE/EcoIogic. (1994). Adult Environmental Education: A workbook to move from words to action. Toronto: ICAE.

Ifoni, C.J. (2013). Strategies for Infusion of Environmental education into adult education programmes in Ebonyi State. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Port Harcourt.

Ivowi, U.M.O. (1999). Environmental Education Approaches To Desertification And Biodiversity Conservation. In P, Okebukola, and B, Akpan,(1999). Strategies for environmental education: focus on desertification and biodiversity conservation. Science Teachers Association: Environmental Education Series 3.

King, W.C. (2000). Understanding international environmental security: a strategic military perspective. Army Environmental Policy Institute

Marcuse, P. (1998). Sustainability is not enough. Environment and urbanization.10(2), 103-111.

Midgely, J. (1995) Social development. The development perspective in social welfare. London: Sage Publications.

Musch, A. (2001) The small gods of participation. Enschede: University of Twente Strengthening sustainability of water supply projects. Nigeria: 26th WEDC international conference blz 336-339.

Nag, A., and Vizaykumar, K. (2005). Environmental education and solid waste management. New Delhi: New age international (P) Ltd, publishers.

Okorie, C. U (2015). Revitalizing adult literacy education in nigeria through appropriate infusion of environmental education into national basic literacy programme. In S.E. Ossat Nigeria centenary (1914-2014): Issues and challenges in education. Port Harcourt: C’Fine Publishers.

Okorie, C.U. (2016) Environmental Adult Education Programmes for Environmental Sustainability.in Adekola, G. and Oyebamiji, M.A. Adult Education and the Environment. Port Harcout: Pear Publisher International LTD.

Orr, D. (1992). Ecological Literacv: Education and the Transition to a postmodern world. Albany: State University Of New York Press

Orr, D. W. (2004). Earth in mind: On education, environment, and the human prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J. & Common, M. (2003). Natural resources and environmental economics. Harlow: Pearson educational limited.

Robinson, K. (2001). Out of our minds: Learning to be creative. Great Britain, UK: Capstone Publishing Limited.

Slocum, R. and Thomas-Slayter, B. (1995). Participation, empowerment and sustainable development. in power, process and participation – tools for change. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.

Somanathan, E. (2010). Environmental literacy: Its roots, evolution, and directions in the 1190’s Columbus OH: ERIC Clearing House for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

Tabiedi, S. (2000). Women and agency in environmental adult education for socio-ecological change, in Clover, Marta, Sandra, and Shirley, F. (2000). (Eds.). Awakening sleepy knowledge. London: Zed Books Ltd.

TayIor, R. (1995). Community environmental learning. In United nations conference on environment and development. (UNCED,1992), XXVIII (4), 81-88.

Tilbury, D. (1994). The international development of environmental education: A base for a teacher education model. Environmental education and information, 13(2). 1-20.

Tilbury, D. (2004). Rising to the challenge: Education for sustainability in Australia. Australian Journal of environmental education, 20(2), 103.

UNESCO (1978a). Towards an Action Plan. A report on the Tbilisi intergovernmental education conference on environmental education. A paper presented by the file sub-committee on environmental education. Washington D.C: United Nations Printing Office.

UNESCO (1978b). Promoting education, public awareness and training. intergovernmental conference on environmental education: Final report. Paris: UNESCO institute for education. www.education.UNESCO.org/nie

United Nations (1992). The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Held from 3rd to 14th June, 1992 at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

United Nations. (1992). Agenda 21. United Nations conference on environment and development. (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Usang, E. A. (1992). Strategies for green literacy. In United nations conference on environment and development. (UNCED,1992), Rio de Janeiro, Convergence, XXV (2), 46-54.

Vest, G. (1997). Environmental Security. In Department of Defence (DOD) directive. DOD international environmental activities.” Federal Facilities Journal. 8.

Vision 2010, Report of the Vision 2010 Committee, Main Report, September 1997.

Vio Grossi, F. (1995). Carnbios paradigrniticos society and ecological educacion. Convergence. XXVIII (4), 3 1 -43.

White, A. (1981), Community participation in water and sanitation: concepts, strategies and methods. Rijswijk (The Hague): International Centre for Community Water Supply and Sanitation.

Original Papers