The development of a construct in the heritage urban sustainability index
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have outlined that every country in the world needs to create sustainable cities for communities by 2030. The first thing to consider is to identify sustainability indicators to be used as a guide in measuring the sustainability index. Therefore, this article aims to explore the formation of the heritage urban sustainability index construct in Malaysia using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The respondents consisted of 100 residents in the heritage city of Kajang, Malaysia, who were selected using a simple random sampling technique. Likert scale questionnaires 1 to 5 were used to elicit feedback. The results showed that the items in each study construct achieved acceptable reliability with Cronbach’s alpha values greater than 0.70 and met the normality test requirements. Data was processed using EFA for grouping items according to appropriate constructs. The results of the study from 154 items of the questionnaire have formed five main constructs of urban heritage sustainability in Malaysia, namely (1) economic prosperity, (2) social well-being, (3) environmental well-being, (4) cultural heritage, and (5) the role of government and community. The results of this study also meet the index value requirements set by Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity. Furthermore, the formation of the five constructs of this study directly demonstrates the relationship between items according to constructs. Indirectly, these findings help research on the sustainability of heritage cities in other areas as well.
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