Analyzing co-creation levels of urban living labs in Europe
Which characteristic of urban living labs (ULL) that focus on urban sustainability, including climate change and water issues, can enhance its level of co-creation? The main question raised for this research paper builds on the idea that optimization of characteristics can positively affect co-creation levels, ultimately improving the outcome of the urban living lab. Through data collected from an online survey participated in by 29 urban living labs in Europe which focused on varying issues, such as water and climate change, it became clear that the most important characteristic to enhance co-creation levels was to establish very clear ULL aims in the first instance. Without a purposive aim, the successful delivery of co-creation outputs proves difficult.